Iyo inoshanda musimboti yemagetsi thermometer

Iyo thermoelectric thermometer inoshandisa thermocouple sechinhu chekuyera tembiricha kuyera iyo thermoelectromotive simba inoenderana netembiricha uye kukosha kwetembiricha kunoratidzwa nemamita. Inoshandiswa zvakanyanya kuyera tembiricha iri pakati pe -200 ℃ ~ 1300 ℃, uye pasi pemamiriro akakosha, inogona kuyera kupisa kwakanyanya kwe2200 ℃ kana tembiricha yakaderera ye4K. Iyo ine hunhu hweyakareruka mamiriro, yakaderera mutengo, yakanyanya kurongeka, uye yakafara tembiricha kuyera renji. Nekuti iyo thermocouple inoshandura tembiricha kuva magetsi ekutsvaga, zviri nyore kuyera uye kudzora tembiricha, uye kukwidziridza uye kushandura tembiricha tembiricha. Iyo inokodzera kuyerwa-kure kuresa uye otomatiki kutonga. Munzira yekuyera tembiricha yekuyera, iko kushandiswa kwethermelectric thermometers ndiko kwakanyanya.

DS-1
(1) Thermocouple tembiricha kuyera musimboti
Iwo musimboti weiyo thermocouple tembiricha kuyerwa kunoenderana neiyo thermoelectric mhedzisiro.
Unganidza makondakita A uye B yezvinhu zviviri zvakasiyana zvakateedzana kuita chiuno chakavharwa. Kana tembiricha yeaya maviri ekutaurirana 1 na2 akasiyana, kana T> T0, simba remagetsi rinogadzirwa muchiuno, uye pachave neyakawandisa chiyero muchiuno. Makuru uye madiki mafungu, chiitiko ichi chinonzi pyroelectric athari. Iri simba remagetsi ndiro rinozivikanwa "Seebeck thermoelectromotive simba", inonzi "thermoelectromotive force", inonzi EAB, uye makondakita A neB vanonzi thermoelectrodes. Bata 1 inowanzo sunganidzwa pamwe chete, uye inoiswa munzvimbo yekuyera tembiricha kuti unzwe tembiricha yakayerwa panguva yekuyera, saka inonzi magumo ekuyera (kana magumo anopisa egumo rinoshanda). Iyo junction 2 inoda tembiricha yenguva dzose, iyo inodaidzwa kunzi junction junction (kana kutonhora kusangana). Sensor inosanganisa ma conductor maviri uye inoshandura tembiricha kuita simba remagetsi rinodaidzwa kunzi thermocouple.

Iko thermoelectromotive simba rinoumbwa nehukama hwekugona hwevatungamiriri vaviri (Peltier kugona) uye musiyano wekupisa tembiricha yemunhu mumwe chete conductor (Thomson kugona). Iko kukura kwesimba remagetsi emagetsi kunoenderana nemidziyo yezvinhu zviviri zvekuitisa uye tembiricha yekusangana.
Iyo elekitironi density mukati mekondakita yakasiyana. Kana ma conductor maviri A uye B aine akasiyana ectron densities ari kusangana, elektroni kupatsanurwa kunoitika pane yekubata pamusoro, uye maerekitironi anoyerera kubva kune conductor ane yakakwira elektroni density kune conductor ine yakaderera density. Iyo mwero wekupararira kwema electron kunoenderana nehuremu hwemagetsi hwevatungamiriri vaviri uye hwakaenzana netembiricha yenzvimbo yekubatana. Tichifunga kuti mahara emagetsi akasimba evaitisi A uye B ndeN NA uye NB, uye NA> NB, semhedzisiro yekupararira kwema electron, conductor A inorasikirwa nemagetsi uye inozobhadhariswa zvakanaka, nepo conductor B achiwana maerekitironi uye anozopomerwa zvakaipa, achigadzira magetsi munda pane yekubatana pamusoro. Iyi magetsi yemagetsi inodzivisa kupararira kwemaerekitironi, uye kana simba rekuyanana rikasvikwa, musiyano unogadzikana unogoneka unowanikwa munzvimbo yekubatana, ndiko kuti, mukana wekutaurirana, uyo hukuru hwayo

(8.2-2)

Iko k-Boltzmann inogara iripo, k = 1.38 × 10-23J / K;
e-uwandu hwemagetsi emagetsi, e = 1.6 × 10-19 C;
T-Icho kutonhora panzvimbo yekubatana, K;
NA, NB - ndiwo emahara maelectron densities evatungamiriri A uye B, zvichiteerana.
Simba remagetsi rinogadzirwa nemusiyano wekupisa pakati pemacheto maviri emufambisi unonzi kugona kwethermoelectric. Nekuda kweiyo tembiricha gradient, kugoverwa kwesimba kwemaerekitironi kwachinjwa. Iyo yekupedzisira tembiricha magumo (T) maerekitironi anozopararira kusvika kune yakaderera tembiricha magumo (T0), zvichikonzera iyo yakakwira tembiricha magumo kuti igove inokwenenzverwa nekuda kwekurasikirwa kwemaerekitironi, uye yakaderera tembiricha kupera kuti ive isina kunaka mhosva nekuda kwemaerekitironi. Naizvozvo, musiyano unogoneka unogadzirwawo kumagumo maviri emufambisi mumwe uye unodzivirira maerekitironi kubva pakupararira kubva kumagumo ekupisa kusvika kumugumo wekupisa wakaderera. Ipapo maerekitironi anoparadzira kuti aite simba rakaenzana. Musiyano unogoneka wakasimbiswa panguva ino unonzi kugona kwethermoelectric kana kugona kwaThomson, kunoenderana nekupisa kwe

(8.2-3)

JDB-23 (2)

Mune fomula, σ ndiyo Thomson coefficient, inomiririra simba remagetsi emagetsi rinogadzirwa nemusiyano wekupisa we1 ° C, uye ukuru hwayo hunoenderana nezvinhu zvemidziyo uye tembiricha kumagumo ese.
Iyo thermocouple yakavharwa dunhu ine makondakita A uye B ine maviri ekubata anogona mukana eAB (T) uye eAB (T0) kune vaviri vokutaurirana, uye nekuti T> T0, kune zvakare kune thermoelectric kugona mune yega yega ma conductor A uye B. Naizvozvo, huwandu hwesimba remagetsi emagetsi emagetsi EAB (T, T0) yeiyo yakavharwa chiuno inofanirwa kuve iyo algebraic sum yesimba remagetsi rekubata uye musiyano wekupisa tembiricha emagetsi, anoti:

(8.2-4)

Kune yakasarudzwa thermocouple, kana iko tembiricha tembiricha iri yenguva dzose, iyo yakazara thermoelectromotive simba inova imwechete-yakakosheswa basa reyero tembiricha yekupedzisira T, ndiko kuti, EAB (T, T0) = f (T). Iyi ndiyo nheyo musimboti wekupisa tembiricha yesimbi.


Post nguva: Jun-11-2021